Reduction measures are implemented at the site where the project is developed or in its immediate vicinity. There are two main categories, depending on whether measures relate to either the construction phase or to the operational phase. Those related to the construction phase deal with temporary and/or permanent impacts and may happen at both the construction site and its vicinity. A similar classification for the avoidance measures can be used to describe reduction measures during the operation phases. The below is for both categories:
- Geographical adaptation of the project
- Construction phase examples include limitation/adaptation of working areas and/or access areas, and/or traffic areas for construction equipment.
- Operation examples include selecting sites where preventive markings on screens must be installed, where fencing is required, or specific habitats or trees of special importance must be appropriately maintained.
- Technical adaptation of the project
- Construction phase examples include temporary fencing and crossing-structures adapted to encourage or discourage connectivity for threatened species.
- Operation examples, include devices for preventing wildlife collisions with traffic, installing new wildlife passages under-or-over the infrastructure, or the adaptation of existing structures as multi-use passages.
- Temporal adaptation of the project
- Construction phase examples include modification of working periods during the year to avoid the biological cycles of local and particularly endangered species at site.
- Operation examples include adapting periods of operation/activity/maintenance throughout the year, including the possible closure of the infrastructure during the most sensitive periods for biodiversity.
The above provides examples of reduction measures for the construction or operation phases. Chapter 5 – Solutions to mitigate impacts and benefit nature provides a comprehensive view of mitigation measures during the construction or operation phases and their relevance as reduction measures.